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Federal Territory. Labuan financial park located in Victoria. Historical affiliations. The signing of the Treaty of Labuan between the Brunei sultanate and the British delegation on 18 December at the Brunei palace [8] [6].

JAMES BROOKE AND MAKING NORTHERN BORNEO PART OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE

British flag hoisted for the first time on the island on 24 December [6]. Labuan War Cemetery. Replica Clock Tower of [note 1]. Malaysia portal. Geographical Dictionary of the World. Concept Publishing Company. Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 16 August London: Columbia University Libraries.

Retrieved 29 April Stephen R. Calendar Print Pte Ltd. Archived from the original PDF on 1 July McColl 1 January Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. Rozan Yunos 7 September The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 28 April Sydney Daily Advertiser. National Library of Australia. Philip Mathews 28 February Editions Didier Millet.

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United States. Hydrographic Office Asiatic Pilot: The coasts of Sumatra and the adjacent straits and islands. Hydrographic office under the authority of the secretary of the navy. Paul H. Kratoska Government of Malaysia. Department of Veterinary Services. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 28 April Graham Saunders 5 November A History of Brunei. Hussainmiya Brunei Press Sdn Bhd. Archived from the original PDF on 12 September Treacher, C. Oxon University of California Libraries.

Trinity Theological College. Pages 84— Archived from the original PDF on 11 October Henry Keppel The Expedition to Borneo of H. Dido: — BoD — Books on Demand.

Malaysia: North Borneo Railway

National Library Board. Rodney Mundy; James Brooke Phillip Cottrell 25 May Eastern Archipelago Company Eastern Archipelago Company. James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. Frans Welman. Borneo Trilogy Volume 1: Sabah.

Use borneo in a sentence | borneo sentence examples

The Star. Retrieved 30 April Edwin Gibson; G. Kingsley Ward Courage remembered: the story behind the construction and maintenance of the Commonwealth's military cemeteries and memorials of the wars of — and — Keat Gin Ooi October Stanley Sandler January James O'Connor 13 June The Morning Bulletin.


  1. British Borneo.
  2. Bestselling in Brunei.
  3. JAMES BROOKE AND MAKING NORTHERN BORNEO PART OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE | Facts and Details.
  4. Holdings: British Borneo : sketches of Brunei, Sarawak, Labuan and North Borneo!
  5. Last Seen in Massilia (Gordianus the Finder Book 8).
  6. Catholic missions.

Australian Officials 19 June The Sydney Morning Herald. Department of Veterans' Affairs.

Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 1 May Bank Negara Malaysia. Archived from the original on 2 May Labuan was declared as an International Offshore Financial Centre IOFC in October to complement the activities of the domestic financial market in Kuala Lumpur , strengthen the contribution of financial services to Gross National Products of Malaysia as well as develop the island and areas within its vicinity.

The Stamps Journal. Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 21 January National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Prelude to invasion: covert operations before the re-occupation of Northwest Borneo, 1944-45

Retrieved 24 March Baseline climate means — from stations all over the world in German. Britain compelled Brunei by an agreement dated 24 December to cede the island of Labuan, the Sultanate's gateway to the outside world.


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  • In accordance with the article X of the Treaty Brunei Monarch would not make any territorial concessions without the consent of the HM Government. Just as in the case of Trucial Gulf States and emirates of Middle-East which entered into similar Treaties with Britain, so too in Brunei this Treaty meant to restrict other contending Western powers from gaining political and commercial foothold. Britain was much less interested to expand its colonial possessions which entailed expenditure.

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    The policy was to prevent other Western powers from dominating the north-west coast of Borneo, which lay on the flank of the important sea route that connected China and India, but the British had little interest in direct involvement in the area. This did not rule out support for unofficial involvements, which became a key feature of British policy in the region from the middle of the nineteenth century. As the importance of Brunei grew in British calculations, concern mounted over overtures made by the United States and Germany in the region.

    Britain decided that it needed further safeguards, to bring not only Brunei but also Sarawak and North Borneo into a more permanent sphere of influence. This important turning point in Brunei history effectively placed Brunei's foreign policy in the hands of Great Britain. The Agreement placed two distinct limitations on Brunei's ability to recover its lost territories. First, Sarawak and North Borneo--Brunei's former dependencies--were included among the foreign states with which Brunei could deal only through Her Majesty's Government. Second, if any disputes arose the decision of the British Government would prevail.

    This instantly turned out to be a great disadvantage for Brunei when Charles Brooke, the Rajah of Sarawak annexed Limbang in May only two years after the Agreement was signed. The British Foreign office endorsed the annexation rather unjustly without caring for Brunei's geographical and economic predicament - a decision that increasingly proved difficult to retract. Brunei trusted that the Agreement would help to prevent the acquisitive Sarawak from further encroachment on its already shrunken territory.

    In Lord Salisbury, in a letter to Sultan Hashim, had promised him protection as a means of reassuring him before he signed the treaty. For the same reason, in Sultan Abdul Mumin, just before his death, had got his nobles to swear a sacred oath, a manah , not to give away any more land to foreigners.

    British Borneo

    Thus the Protectorate Agreement of proved inadequate to protect the territorial integrity of Brunei. The Agreement itself was worded in a sufficiently vague manner to give a free hand to the protecting power. Thus a Foreign Office minute speaks of the Agreement as not standing 'in the way of such a consummation as the absorption, when the time arrives, of Brunei by Sarawak and the BNBC. It would, in fact, enable HM Government to advise the Sultan to accept the inevitable on the best terms procurable. Internally too Brunei was getting weaker due to bankruptcy situation, conspiracy by Rajah Brooke to foment rebellion in the outlying Tutong and Belait districts, and by unpatriotic attitudes of some influential nobles who were negotiating to sell parts of Brunei to the Sarawak Rajah, No one was more aware of the looming danger than the ailing Sultan, Hashim Jalilul Alam.

    He was heartbroken to have been let down by his Protector Britain. And he complained to King Edward in