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Haidt illustrates this point with the metaphor of a rider and an elephant. Ostensibly, the rider, rein in hand, can direct the elephant wherever they want it to go. Regarding our reasoning about morality and politics, gut intuition the elephant comes first, and reason the rider rationalizes the intuitive decision. According to Haidt, this all happens so fast that we mistake the process for pure reasoning, not noticing the elephant in the room.

The elephant could just as easily be a donkey. Over time, commitment to ideological thought can inform our moral intuitions. Likewise, reason or ideological commitments can overpower our initial intuitions. Political scientists have raised other compelling questions about the ideological depth of voters. Kinder and Kalmoe found that it took a lot of effort to be ideological. You need to spend time gathering information, get actively involved in political disputes, and focus on politics at a level few are willing to do.

But if ideology is costly, in terms of our intellectual resources, partisanship is cheap.

A World-Famous Pastry Chef's Heartbreaking Regret

They also found partisan allegiance tended to strengthen over a lifetime. Ideology is an elite concern. For most voters, party loyalty, religion, and race are far more decisive. How many platoons do conservative intellectuals have? Presidential campaigns are major partisan battles with minor ideological skirmishes on the side.

A second reason to question the importance of conservative ideas is the conservative intellectual canon is a self-fashioned hagiography. It has a distorting effect on our ability to understand the historic conservative movement and its present iteration. The conservative canon is teleological, for instance, suggesting a clear trajectory of the past into the present, culminating in the modern conservative movement. I think this is dangerous for several reasons. Similarly, conservative appeals to Western Civilization often reduce rich Christian and Jewish traditions to a vague conservative religiosity and belief in small government.

This conservative teleology claims the past for a modern political agenda and muddies the intellectual history of conservatism by presenting it as timeless. You must look at the mess of history. The marginal stuff is just as important: attack ads, jokes, pamphlets, direct mail, viral videos, reader letters including the cranks , the memes with uncomfortable racial overtones shared at Thanksgiving.

But books are durable artifacts. People keep books, libraries store them. But they throw out the political flotsam that was just as likely to have shaped their views.


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The vagaries of what people keep and throw away make it that much harder for historians to grapple with past political movements. Too many present-day conservatives have fallen into the trap of focusing on high ideals and lasting materials.

These key psychological differences can determine whether you're liberal or conservative

In general, I believe in giving historic conservatives the benefit of the doubt, especially the ones who wrote for conservative publications. And I believe James Kilpatrick, for instance, genuinely loved the Constitution and believed in its strict construction. Like Kilpatrick, many historic conservatives articulated principles that supported white supremacist policies at home and abroad. They advanced partisan agendas and often defended vested economic interests.

Nor were they just providing cover for racists. They meant what they said about principles. Why might conservatives feel more of this? Social conservatives, Schwarz says, tend to think the world is the way it ought to be. The world tends to be less meaningful to people who think tradition is unimportant and everything can—and possibly should—change on a dime.

For liberals, the capacity to see the gray in life might be valuable in some sense, but also not give them as clear a sense of meaning. They tend to talk up how great their lives are and downplay their struggles. Any finding can be twisted to make your team seem smarter, better, and more moral, and the other like a bunch of ignorant ghouls. These days, Democrats are rooting for George W. He pointed out that Winston Churchill was by some measures quite conservative; his nationalism, for example, was evident in how he zealously promoted the British empire at the expense of its former colonies.

But you have to hand it to him—he knew how to spot a Nazi , long before many others did. We want to hear what you think about this article. In America support for President Trump correlated more strongly with a belief that black Americans do not suffer from racism than with economic distress see chart. The median Clinton voter was bit poorer.

In short, though the left lost an election to Mr Trump, many on the right have lost their party to him, which feels worse.

In Britain a similar end has been arrived at by a different path. Their would-be leaders are disgracing themselves trying to keep up. Only one of the six Tories who got to the second round of the race to succeed Theresa May in June refused to countenance a no-deal Brexit. But he was never going to win. In the multiparty systems seen in much of western Europe, conservative parties are instead threatened, or have already been overtaken, by startups and reinvigorated far-right rumps.

In Italy the old conservative party was killed off long ago by a mixture of scandal and Silvio Berlusconi, and has since been replaced by the Northern League now just called the League. Meanwhile, to the east, Hungary has gone straight to the reactionary nationalist right with barely a latitudinarian moment. One thing all these movements share is a devotion to pride, particularly manly sorts of pride, and especially pride that involves the loud proclamation of an unwillingness to apologise—for the Southern Strategy, for Franco, for Vichy, for Mussolini, for the Raj, for the Confederacy.

Particularly worrying, in this respect, is pride centred on ethnicity. Where Burkean conservatives tended to value the institutions they found in the past, reactionaries value the identities they can find there. Conservatives have a respect for a universal human nature; reactionaries tend to value some natures more than others.

Will this persist? It is tempting to think not. Conservatism has a long tradition of adapting to the world which has served it well. Opportunist, incoherent and unmoored, the reactionary right will fail to deliver and conservatives will rise again from the rich institutional soil they value so much to check and channel change.

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‘A zombie party’: the deepening crisis of conservatism

Yet in the first decades of the 21st century the most politically salient ways in which life is changing have to do with things that nobody in the rich democracies voted for. More people in poor countries than ever before can see media images of the West and can afford to try to get there. China has an economic model that produces goods others want to buy. Women have more political power and more freedom to choose how to live their lives.


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Family structures are changing, as people marry later or not at all. The climate is changing in ways that carry the risk of catastrophe in the absence of radical action.

Pragmatism (Conservatism) | Politics | tutor2u

Politicians from conservative traditions might do something about some of this. But these are not changes they can easily control.

Conservatism Makes Sense If...

This, they argued in an article for First Things , a journal, is not necessarily a loss. But it failed to retard, much less reverse, the eclipse of permanent truths, family stability, communal solidarity, and much else. They do not have a plan. It was not the presence of business people and libertarians in the Republican coalition of yore that prevented it from stopping the sort of things these people disapprove of.

They are not the sort of thing politics stops. Burkean conservatives are not the only enemies of reactionary nationalism; it is opposed by liberals and the left as well. That said, old-fashioned conservatives may still have the best chance of mounting a victory of moderation. If they do not, they may have the most to lose.

Explaining the divide

As Hayek had it, they risk finding themselves dragged along a path not of their choosing. Join them. Subscribe to The Economist today. Media Audio edition Economist Films Podcasts. New to The Economist?